During the tutorial, madam had given us a task & asked all of us students to analyse 5 Web 2.0 services individually from the diagram 1 shown below:-
Diagram 1 shows Web 2.0
From the diagram 1, I’d decided to 5 Web 2.0 services to analyse which are Citizen Journalism, Long Tail, Social Softwares/Networks/Computing, Tags and Smart Mobs, Collective Intelligence.
#1 Citizen Journalism
The definition is the collection, dissemination, and analysis of news and information by the general public, especially by means of the Internet.
Change starts at the edges. That’s where people—our readers and viewers—probe new practices. That’s also where their emerging culture is forming, a culture in which they look at media from a different perspective. And so journalists’ new thinking needs to begin at the periphery, where change comes quickly among the younger generation of users, and a lot more slowly for us. Tomorrow’s potential readers are using the Web in ways we can hardly imagine, and if we want to remain significant for them, we need to understand how. Yet news organisations have been all too slow to notice movement in places that are away from what has been their centre.
Start with the search engines. A significant part of the traffic of news Web sites comes from them; people arrive at a story without going through any of the thoughtful editorial organisation usually put in place by editors. For the same reason, the content that is kept behind pay-walls is not indexed and, therefore, does not exist.
Google News, Yahoo! News, Wikinews—sites that attract hundreds of millions of users—have their own news offerings that challenge traditional media. And Craig Newmark (craigslist’s founder) is one of the nonprofit funders involved with NewAssignment.net, a reporting partnership among reporters and editors and citizen journalists.
A plethora of lesser-known Web sites also allow users to handle information in ways that go far beyond the one-way approach of traditional media.
- At del.icio.us readers share articles by tagging them and setting them “free” for others to read. This “folksonomy” replaces traditional taxonomies, and it substitutes for work normally done by editors.
- At Digg.com articles are submitted and voted on by readers. Winners move to the top of the screen.
- NewsVine.com adds the option for users to write their own articles.
- Wikio.com is designed to be a kind of integrated Google News + Google Reader (an “aggregator for dummies”) that pulls together stories from traditional news media and blogs. Users create word associations with personalised tags.
- Socialising in blogs. A small button dragged to the browser toolbar allows the user who reads an interesting article to “sphere it,” and thereby gain access to other articles or blog entries about the same topic. This provides a range of opinions and information to the user, adding the dimension of diversity to move beyond the journalistic benchmarks of objectivity, balance and fairness.
- ChicagoCrime.org is a mash-up that puts crime-related information coming from the police department on a Google map. It can be browsed by street, ward, zip code, types of crime, and news stories.
- In Eugene, Oregon the Chambers neighbourhood (www.cnrneighbors.org) used the Web to fight a development project with maps, pictures and 3-D images. Journalists can take ideas from this experience that can help them approach “coverage” of a local issue of intense interest to a community.
- At NewsTrust.net, still in pilot mode, volunteers “help people identify quality journalism—or ‘news you can trust.’” News is rated based on journalistic quality, not just popularity, and comes from hundreds of alternative and mainstream sources.
#2 Long Tail
Small sites make up the bulk of the internet’s content; narrow niches make up the bulk of internet’s the possible applications. Therefore:Leverage customer-self service and algorithmic data management to reach out to the entire web, to the edges and not just the centre, to the long tail and not just the head.
The Long Tail is about focusing on the less popular content that previously couldn’t be accessed because of some physical limitation: most often shelf space. The classic examples that Anderson uses are music and books. Book and CD stores can only hold so many albums and books, so the constraint of shelf space hinders their ability to provide an exhaustive selection.
Online, there is no physical constraint like shelf space, so amazon.com can offer a much wider selection than can a physical Barnes & Noble store. Anderson points out: “The average Barnes & Noble carries 130,000 titles. Yet more than half of Amazon’s book sales come from outside its top 130,000 titles.”
Similarly, Web 2.0 is about enabling access to previously unavailable digital content. The constraint involved is political or psychological, or something akin to that.
The way that Web 2.0 enables access is by the creation of APIs on top of databases that were previously soloed for private use only. In other words, companies and organisations have databases in which they keep information. By default, that information is for their use only, as it resides on their network and their computers and they have firewalls protecting it. Some however, put valuable information on a web server and offer it up via a web site, but they only offer their interface for accessing it. However, by putting it on a web server and creating an API so that others can access it, the potential uses of the data, and its value, increase tremendously.
In most cases, Web 2.0 APIs will provide access to all content on one type. So, if a company provides access to mp3 music files, you’ll probably be able to access all of the music (even the disco genre). This is because physical storage is cheap as dirt: hard drives cost nothing nowadays.
I see lots of similarities between the Long Tail and Web 2.0. Both ideas are about improved access to previously unavailable content, both are about showing the whole catalog, and both are ultimately great at enabling user choice. They seem to overlap a lot. If I had to make a marked distinction between them I would say that Web 2.0 is about the access to information while the Long Tail is about the economics of it all.
References : http://bokardo.com/archives/long-tail-web2/
#3 Social Softwares/Networks/Computing
Social software applications include communication tools and interactive tools often based on the Internet. Communication tools typically handle the capturing, storing and presentation of communication, usually written but increasingly including audio and video as well. Interactive tools handle mediated interactions between a pair or group of users. They focus on establishing and maintaining a connection among users, facilitating the mechanics of conversation and talk.
An instant messaging application or client allows one to communicate with another person over a network in real time, in relative privacy. Popular, consumer-oriented clients include AOL Instant Messenger, Google speech, ICQ, Meebo, MSN Messenger, Pidgin (formerly maig), and Yahoo! Messenger. Instant messaging software designed for use in business includes IBM Lotus Sametime, XMPP and Microsoft Messenger.
References : http://mashable.com/category/social-software/
Social Networks is an interdisciplinary and international quarterly. It provides a common forum for representatives of anthropology, sociology, history, social psychology, political science, human geography, biology, economics, communications science and other disciplines who share an interest in the study of the empirical structure of social relations and associations that may be expressed in network form. It publishes both theoretical and substantive papers. Critical reviews of major theoretical or methodological approaches using the notion of networks in the analysis of social behaviour are also included, as are reviews of recent books dealing with social networks and social structure.
References : http://www.journals.elsevier.com/social-networks
Social computing is the collaborative and interactive aspect of online behaviour. The term can be understood in contrast to personal computing, which describes the behaviour of isolated users.
Elements of social computing include blogs, wikis, Twitter, RSS, instant messaging, multiplayer gaming and open source development, as well as social networking and social bookmarking sites. Social computing is closely related to the concept of Web 2.0, which can be thought of as the framework of applications supporting the processes of social computing.
Tagging, or labeling content, is part of the collaborative nature of Web 2.0. A tag is any user-generated word or phrase that helps organize web content and label it in a more human way. Though standard sets of labels allow users to mark content in a general way, tagging items with self-chosen labels creates a stronger identification of the content. In an interview by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, David Weinberger (author of Everything is Miscellaneous) said:
“Maybe the most interesting thing about tagging is that we now have millions and millions of people who are saying, in public, what they think pages and images are about.”
As part of the same December 2006 report, 28% of Internet users had reportedly “tagged” content online.
#5 Smart Mobs, Collective Intelligence
A smart mob is a group whose coordination and communication abilities have been empowered by digital communication technologies. Smart mobs are particularly known for their ability to mobilise quickly.
The concept was introduced by Howard Rheingold in his book Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. Rheingold defined the smart mob as follows: “Smart mobs consist of people who are able to act in concert even if they don’t know each other… because they carry devices that possess both communication and computing capabilities”. In December of that year, the “smart mob” concept was highlighted in the New York Times“Year in Ideas.”
Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears inconsensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus,social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria and animals.
References : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_mob